Friedrich Hayek

Friedrich Hayek, philosophe et économiste de l’École autrichienne, promoteur du libéralisme contre le collectivisme et l’étatisme (Prix Nobel d’économie en 1974):

"The advocates of individual freedom have generally sympathised with aspirations for national freedom — that is, with the desire of peoples to be free from foreign yoke and to determine their own fate — and this has led to the constant but uneasy alliance between the liberal and the national movements during the nineteenth century. But though the conception of national freedom is analogous to that of individual freedom, it is not the same; and the striving for the first has not always enhanced the second. It has sometimes led people to prefer a despot of their own race to the liberal government of the alien majority; and it has often provided the pretext for ruthless restrictions of the individual liberty of minorities.

Nationalistic bias frequently provides the bridge… to collectivism: to think in terms of ‘our’ industry or resource is only a short step away from demanding that these ‘national assets’ be directed in the ‘national interest’."