Une idée largement répendue sur le terrorisme veut que la pauvreté, la misère et le manque d'éducation engendre ce mal.
Si on ce fit à la littérature scientifique, c'est faux !
Déboulonnons le mythe…
Terrorism has little or nothing to do with economics, according to a new analysis of the social background of Hizbullah militants in Lebanon.
After also examining the income and education of Palestinian suicide bombers and Israelis implicated in civilian assassinations and attacks, the study concludes: "Any connection between poverty, education and terrorism is indirect and probably quite weak". […]
As the graphic shows, compared with the Lebanese population as a whole, Hizbullah members were less likely to come from poor families and were significantly more likely to have completed secondary education.
A similar pattern holds for Palestinian suicide bombers. Though the data are less extensive, the authors found a positive link between taking part in "terrorism" and educational attainment.
No correlation was found between participation in violence and economic depression: violence seems to have increased when local economic conditions were getting better.
The latest intifada began when economic optimism among Palestinians was rising and after a period during which education levels among young Palestinians had risen remarkably.
Thus the latest outbreak of violence, the paper says, cannot be blamed on deteriorating economic conditions. […]
"If poverty were the wellspring of support for terrorism or politically motivated violence, one would have expected the unemployed to be more supportive of armed attacks than merchants and professionals, not less," the study says.
Research by Krueger and Maleckova suggests that education may be uncorrelated, or even positively correlated, with supporting terrorism. In a December 2001 poll of 1357 West Bank and Gaza Palestinians 18 years of age or older, those having 12 or more years of schooling supported armed attacks by 68 points, those with up to 11 years of schooling by 63 points, and illiterates by 46 points. Only 40% of persons with advanced degrees supported dialogue with Israel versus 53% with college degrees and 60% with 9 years or less of schooling. In a comparison of Hezbollah militants who died in action with a random sample of Lebanese from the same age group and region, militants were less likely to come from poor homes and more likely to have had secondaryschool education.
Poverty, unemployment, and lack of education are serious problems in some of the world’s most populous Muslim countries. There is, however, no evidence of a correlation between these social and economic ills and terrorism. Terrorists are not always poor and prosperity does not end terrorism. In fact, in the world’s 50 poorest countries, there is little terrorism. It is too soon to dismiss socio-economic conditions completely, but studies have generally found that terrorists tend not to be from societies’ most deprived groups. Instead, terrorists are generally well educated and unlikely to be poor. In India, for example, terrorism has occurred in one of the country’s most prosperous regions, Punjab, and its most egalitarian, Kashmir (where the poverty rate is less than 4 percent, compared with a national average of 26 percent). The sub-continent’s poorest regions, such as North Bihar, have not produced any terrorist activity. In Arab countries such as Egypt and Saudi Arabia, as well as in North Africa, terrorists do not originate in the poorest and most neglected areas, but in some of the wealthiest regions and neighborhoods. […]
The survey of 14 Muslim countries found that respondents who reported having inadequate money for food were the least likely to support terrorism. By contrast, the study found that individuals with cell phones or computers (who are presumably more affluent) are more likely to support terrorism than those who do not own these items.
Résultats d'une étude de Gallup:
La pauvreté et la misère comme source du terroriste ? Une idée reçue, rien de plus !